Scientific Serve appreciate your participation in this Conference. Every Conference is divided into several sessions of subfields. Select the Subfield of your choice please.
Microbiology dates back to the times of Aristotle where people used to believe that living organisms are born from non-living organisms. From there, it gradually evolved further with Roger Bacon in 13thcentury calling it a Germ, the agent of disease that infects humans. Van Leuwenhoek, in 1676 observed the very first microbes called “Animalcules”. And in 1878 Sedillot coined the term Microbe. The study of microbes picked up and the field has come to known as microbiology. Microbiology has seen the golden era with major contributions from the great scientists like Redi, Needham, & Spallanzi, Louis Pasteur, Lister, Tyndall, Koch, Petri, Hesse, Jenner, Fleming & Ehrlich. Today, the research, the advanced technologies, innovations in research studies has seen microbiology expand into various sub-fields such as Pathology, Microbiology, Bacteriology, Virology, Parasitology, Mycology, and several other sub-fields. All these sub-fields are inter-dependent and blend into it making the science of microbiology a stronger one where its benefits are reaching people across the world. This session discusses in threadbare about the latest developments, trends and technologies in microbiology.
Viral Pathogenesis is nothing but the origin of a disease through viruses, while virulence is, the ability of infectious agent to produce a disease and countermeasure is an action that counters infectious agents. A viral is a germ smaller than bacteria. Without the host cells Viruses cannot grow on their own. They live in human bodies. They cause cold, fever, influenza, diarrhea, dengue, hepatitis, rabies, measles, smallpox, polio, AIDS etc. Viruses are virulent in that they have a protective coating and hence cannot be cured with antibiotics. But vaccines help contain viral infections. Viral pathogenesis is a field where evolution is taking place at rapid pace introducing the newer methodologies in developing systems biology. Some pathogens have an array of virulence factors. We need to develop newer drugs to effectively combat infectious viral diseases. This session throws open the debate on the strategies to be adopted to develop newer drugs to counter viral pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The latest in research trends, the latest technologies, robotics and nanotechnology and its applications are the need of the hour to counter pathogenesis of viral infectious diseases and their virulent factors. All the pathologists, virologists, microbiologists, bacteriologists, parasitologists, and immunologists have to focus on these issues and challenges to combat viral infections.
Bacterial Pathogenesis is nothing but the origin of a disease through bacteria, while virulence is, the ability of infectious agent to produce a disease and countermeasure is an action that counters infectious agents. Countermeasures for gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial infections involve biofilms. Colonies of bacteria live in a biofilm made up principally of capsule material. Antimicrobials in tandem with chemical compounds are good in combating biofilms. Molecular targets of bacterial virulence proteins important for developing plant disease are still unclear. Yet bacterial surface component plays an important role in the pathogenesis of infectious disease. The ability of the organism to cause disease despite host resistance mechanisms directly depends on the degree of virulence. Of late, the number of new antibacterial drugs has plummeted while the number of antibiotic-resistant infections has risen. As a result, there is every need to develop newer drugs to counter infectious diseases. This session discusses in detail about what measures need to be taken to develop newer drugs to counter bacterial pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The latest trends in research, the latest technologies available, the application of robotics and nanotechnology in developing countermeasures to counter pathogenesis of infectious diseases demands the attention Pathologists, Microbiologists, Bacteriologists, Parasitologists, Virologists, and immunologists etc.
Antimicrobials are known as antibiotics which destroy disease-causing microorganisms and further inhibit their growth. Antimicrobials prevent and cure infections caused by bacteria, fungi, yeast, and parasites. Advanced technologies in antimicrobials, vaccines and therapeutics face number of challenges against infectious diseases. These challenges need to be addressed in research laboratories, academically and industrially with multidisciplinary teams to develop new vaccines and therapeutics to against infectious diseases. Our existing knowledge on protein structure, microbial pathogenicity and the immune system isn’t enough. More research studies needs to be done on vaccines, therapeutics and antimicrobials and their advanced technologies. This session focuses its attention on advances made in research and development of new vaccines, therapeutics and advanced antimicrobials to fight, cure, and control many types of infectious diseases. The application of nanotechnology and robotics in developing antimicrobials, vaccines and therapeutics is the need of the hour.
Infections caused in hospitals, nursing homes, healthcare units are called nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections are also known as hospital hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Bacteria, fungus, and viruses cause HAIs, bacteria alone cause 90 percent of Nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections are caused when immune systems are compromised during a stay in a hospital or a clinic facility. Generally, nosocomial infections are contacted from person to person, through unhygienic habits in people, and unclean surroundings, unsterilized medical instruments like respiratory machines, catheters, and other instruments. Nosocomial infections are also caused by unnecessary usage of antibiotics, which lead to bacteria becoming immune to or unaffected to irregular use of antibiotics. To avoid nosocomial infections sanitation procedures should be implemented in hospitals and clinical centers. Disinfecting the surface floors, sterilizing equipment and instruments, maintaining hygienic conditions in healthcare facilities, hospital settings, neat staff uniforms and other preventive measures need to be put in place. This session on nosocomial infections focuses on sanitation methods and examines other remedial measures to be adopted in hospital settings, clinical facilities, and various other means of keeping nosocomial infections away from the people.
Emergence of infectious diseases is due to various factors like societal, technological, and environmental factors that are having a dramatic effect on infectious diseases worldwide. The reemergence of existing old infectious diseases which include drug-resistant forms are also the causes to worry. Demographic, ecologic conditions and population growth, increasing poverty, people migrating to urban areas are some of the reasons for the rapid spread of infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are spread through tourists, immigrants, processed food, animals that transmit diseases. Preventing the emergence of infectious diseases is the need of the hour. In response to the public and their good health, the epidemiologists in tandem with governments of the world should draw a strategy in this regard to control and prevent the spread of infectious diseases. This session discusses in detail about what measures and counter measures should be taken to arrest and contain the spread of infectious diseases. How epidemiologists should educate the peoples of the world regarding infectious diseases and the dangers inherent in them. What technologies and applications should be adopted in containing the spread of infectious diseases? All these issues are to come up in this session for discussions and debates.
Veterinary Microbiology is a subject concerning bacterial, fungal, and viral called as microbial diseases of livestock, animals such as domesticated animals, fur-bearing animals, and poultry, fish that supply food and other useful products. Veterinary microbiology deals with the health and nutritional needs of domestic animals, birds, wildlife, and zoo animals. Animal modeling and veterinary microbiology goes hand in hand in the study of animal-health commodities, monitoring of animal health on a large scale production and biomedical research. This session throws open the discussions and debates on veterinary microbiology and animal modeling, animal nutrition, animal diseases, animal breeding and genetics, cattle and livestock management, poultry production, animal models, the latest trends in study of pathogenesis, etiology, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention measures etc.
There are different microbes in different parts of the body such as skin, gut, reproductive tract etc. The most important microbes found in human body are gut microflora. The stomach microflora includes streptococcus, staphylococcus etc. These bacteria are able to survive the acidic conditions of the stomach. The intestinal flora is enterobacteriaceae. These florae are unable the development and the utility of the gut. These microbes help the gut in preventing other microbe’s colonization. They also secrete certain substances that are required for the digestion of the food. Rhizobium bacteria are found in leguminous plants such as pea, bean, etc. This bacterium helps in absorption of nitrogen required by the plants. Viruses are used as a vector for transmission of required gene during recombinant DNA Technology.
Microbiology Research and Advancements are concerned with the etiologic diagnosis of infection. It encompasses the characterization of thousands of agents that cause or are associated with infectious diseases. The techniques used to characterize infectious agents vary greatly depending on the clinical syndrome and the type of agent being considered be it virus, bacterium, fungus, or parasite. Because no single test will permit isolation or characterization of all potential pathogens, clinical information is much more important for diagnostic microbiology than it is for clinical chemistry or hematology. Many pathogenic microorganisms grow slowly and days or even weeks may elapse before they are isolated and identified.
Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms like fungi, bacteria, viruses and even parasites. They are contagious and transmitted by insects, animals and by taking contaminated food and water. Chickenpox, measles, typhoid are some of the infectious diseases. Some of the infectious diseases also lead to cancer such as Human papillomavirus causes cervical cancer; lymphoma is caused by infection of Epstein-Barr virus. An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by bacterial, viral or fungal pathogens that take advantage of a host with a weak immune system. These pathogens do not cause disease in a healthy individual that has a normal immune system but in immuno compromised patients. Examples include malnutrition, ageing, leukopenia, HIV, immunosuppressing agents and genetic predisposition. direct examination and techniques like immunofluorescence, immuno-peroxidase staining, and other immunoassays may detect specific microbial antigens. Genetic probes identify genus or species-specific DNA or RNA sequences.
Microbial Genomics and Genome Sequencing deal with high quality original research on archaea, bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses. It delves into novel insights gained from using genomic data, exciting new applications and innovative analysis approaches. Whole genome sequencing also known as full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time. This entails sequencing all of an organism's chromosomal DNA as well as DNA contained in the mitochondria and, for plants, in the chloroplast. Whole genome sequencing has largely been used as a research tool but is currently being introduced to clinics. In the future of personalized medicine, whole genome sequence data will be an important tool to guide therapeutic intervention. The tool of gene sequencing at SNP level is also used to pinpoint functional variants from association studies and improve the knowledge available to researchers interested in evolutionary biology, and hence may lay the foundation for predicting disease susceptibility and drug response.
Medical microbiology is a branch of medical science and deals with studies on microbiology applied to medicine. It is concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. In addition, this field of science studies various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health. There are four kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious diseases such as bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, and one type of infectious protein called prion. A medical microbiologist studies the characteristics of pathogens, their modes of transmission, mechanisms of infection and growth. Based on this information, a treatment can be devised. Medical microbiologists often serve as consultants for physicians, providing identification of pathogens and suggesting treatment options. Other tasks may include the identification of potential health risks to the community or monitoring the evolution of potentially virulent or resistant strains of microbes, educating the community and assisting in the design of health practices.
Marine microbiology is the study of microorganisms and non-organismic microbes that exist in saltwater environments including the Open Ocean, coastal waters, and estuaries on marine surfaces and in sediments. Defining marine microbiology means determining what exactly qualifies as a marine microorganism. Microorganism usually means any living entity too small to see with the naked eye and is often used for any single-celled organism. However, some single-celled organisms are visible alone or when gathered in communities and some multicellular animals are microscopic. Marine microbiology deals with all very small life and life-like biological phenomena like non-organismic microbes, bacteria, archaea, protozoans, single-celled algae and very small multicellular plants, fungi, and animals.
The responses of microorganisms like viruses, bacteria cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens to selected factors of space microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude.
Agricultural microbiology is a branch of microbiology dealing with plant-associated microbes and plant and animal diseases. It deals with the microbiology of soil fertility such as microbial degradation of organic matter and soil nutrient transformations. Bacteria which are more dominant group of microorganisms in the soil and equal to one half of the microbial biomass in soil. Population is 100,000 to several hundred millions for gram of soil Autochthnous Zymogenous groups. Actinomycetes are intermediate group between bacteria and fungi, which are widely distributed in soil. Fungi are seen in surface layers of well-aerated and cultivated soils-dominant in acid soils. Common genera in soil are Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium Trichoderma, Alternaria, Rhizopus. Algae – found in most of the soils in number ranges from 100 to 10,000 per g. Protozoa are unicellular and population ranges from 10,000 to 100,000 per g of soil. Most of the soil forms are flagellates, amoebae or ciliates. Derive their nutrition by devouring soil bacteria. Found abundant in upper larger of the soil. They are regulating the biological equilibrium in soil.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. Antibiotics are used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi. Agents that kill microbes are called microbicidal while those that merely inhibit their growth are called biostatic. The use of antimicrobial medicines to treat infection is known as antimicrobial chemotherapy, while the use of antimicrobial medicines to prevent infection is known as antimicrobial prophylaxis. The main classes of antimicrobial agents are disinfectants such as nonselective antimicrobials such as bleach, which kill a wide range of microbes on non-living surfaces to prevent the spread of illness, antiseptics which are applied to living tissue and help reduce infection during surgery and antibiotics which destroy microorganisms within the body.
Central nervous system infections caused by viruses can cause meningitis and encephalitis. Central nervous system infections are extremely serious. Meningitis affects the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Encephalitis affects the brain itself. Some of these infections affect primarily the meninges the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord and are called meningitis. Viral meningitis is sometimes called aseptic meningitis. Meningitis can also be caused by bacteria. Viruses that infect the central nervous system brain and spinal cord include herpesviruses herpes simplex virus infections, arboviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enteroviruses. Many infections are mild, but others are severe and can cause death. The diagnosis of viral central nervous system infections is based on a spinal tap. Antiviral drugs are usually not effective for treatment of central nervous system infections, so children need to receive supportive measures such as fluids and drugs to control fever and pain.
Respiratory Tract Infection refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract. An infection of this type is normally further classified as an upper respiratory tract infection (URI or URTI) or a lower respiratory tract infection (LRI or LRTI). Lower respiratory infections are pneumonia which tend to be far more serious conditions than upper respiratory infections such as the common cold. Although some disagreement exists on the exact boundary between the upper and lower respiratory tracts, the upper respiratory tract is generally considered to be the airway above the glottis or vocal cords. This includes the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx. Typical infections of the upper respiratory tract include tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, certain types of influenza, and the common cold. Symptoms of URIs can include cough, sore throat, runny nose, nasal congestion, headache, low grade fever, facial pressure and sneezing. The lower respiratory tract consists of the trachea (wind pipe), bronchial tubes, the bronchioles, and the lungs.
Rare Infectious Diseases cause outbreaks, epidemics, even pandemics that spread from continent to continent. Rare diseases caused by infectious agents rather than genetic or environmental factors. Some of the diseases are Acanthamoeba keratitis, Progressive vaccinia, Rat-bite fever, etc. Modern medicine and hygiene have given us some control over devastating infectious diseases, even eradicating smallpox, but, for the most part they remain with us, often preying upon the poorest and most vulnerable.Scientists think that smallpox, which causes skin lesions has emerged about 3,000 years ago in India or Egypt before sweeping across continents. The variola virus, which causes smallpox killed as many as a third of those it infected and left others scarred and blinded, according to the World Health Organization. Plague, which is caused by a bacterium carried by fleas have been blamed for decimating societies including 14th-century Europe during the Black Death when it wiped out roughly a third of the population, including in Basel. The disease comes in three forms, but the best known is bubonic plague which is marked by buboes, or painfully swollen lymph nodes.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection or cystitis; and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as kidney infection or pyelonephritis. Symptoms from a lower urinary tract include pain with urination, frequent urination, and feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder. Symptoms of a kidney infection include fever and flank pain usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI. Rarely the urine may appear bloody. The most common cause of infection is Escherichia coli, though other bacteria or fungi may rarely be the cause. Risk factors include female anatomy, sexual intercourse, diabetes, obesity, and family history. Although sexual intercourse is a risk factor, UTIs are not classified as sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Kidney infection usually follows a bladder infection but may also result from a blood-borne infection.
The eyes of 20 patients with primary immunodeficiency syndromes were examined and microbial cultures of their lids and conjunctivae were made. Nine patients had a history of recurrent external ocular infections and six of these had active blepharitis or blepharoconjunctivitis at the time of examination. A single pathogenic bacterium was isolated from the lids and conjunctivae of six patients with a history of infection; a mixture of two possible pathogens was cultured from eyes of three other patients. Three of the nine patients with infections had impaired B-cell and intact T-cell immunity whereas three patients had impaired B-cell and T-cell immunity. Two patients had chronic granulomatous disease in which a defect in phagocytosis was the predominant immunologic abnormality, and one patient with mucocutaneous candidiasis had intact B- and T-cell function at the time of testing. The immunodeficient patients had a higher incidence of lid or conjunctival infection the microbial flora of the lids and conjunctivae did not differ between the two groups.
Enterococcus faecalis the more common and virulent species causes serious high-inoculum infections namely infective endocarditis that are associated with cardiac surgery and mortality rates that remained unchanged for the last 30 years. Enterococci is one of the most common causes of hospital-associated infections are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. The best cures for these infections are observed with combination antibiotic therapy. Optimal treatment has not been fully elucidated. It highlights treatment options and their limitations and provides direction for future investigative efforts to aid in the treatment of these severe infections. While ampicillin plus ceftriaxone has emerged as a preferred treatment option mortality rates continue to be high and from a safety standpoint ceftriaxone unlike other cephalosporins promotes colonization with vancomycin resistant-enterococci due to high biliary concentrations. More research is needed to improve patient outcomes from this high-mortality disease.
Applied Microbiology is the study of how to use the application of microorganisms to benefit humanity. It involves the deeper understanding of the subfields like biotechnology, enzyme technology, pharmaceutical microbiology, medicinal microbiology, agricultural biotechnology, plant microbiology, and bioremediation, food microbiology and so on. Pharmaceutical microbiology involves the study of microorganisms in relation to pharmaceuticals and further ensures the finished pharmaceutical products are pure and sterile. Other aspects include the research and development of anti-infectious drugs and the effective usage of microorganisms in manufacturing pharmaceutical products such as insulin and human growth hormone. This is how industrial microbiology complements applied microbiology. Industrial microbiology plays a major role in developing and manufacturing newer drugs to save humanity from diseases caused by parasites, viruses and bacteria etc. This session discusses and debates the latest trends in research fields, the need for newer drugs, vaccines, and antibiotics etc. The application of latest technologies like nanotechnology and robotics in these fields need to be looked into. The role of industrial microbiology and applied microbiology and how these two branches of science can be strengthened and made effective is the main focus in this session.